The continued use of animal serum as an important component in biotechnology manufacturing processes has raised questions regarding both the reliability of geographic origin and possible adulteration of product. The International Serum Industry Association (ISIA) has implemented a traceability certification program designed to demonstrate traceability from slaughterhouse or abattoir to the end-user. This is based on an audit performed by an independent, approved third-party auditor according to an approved audit plan, using a detailed audit checklist. Recent advances have led to the development of a complementary testing program to determine geographic origin of material. The methodology described in this paper differentiates fetal bovine serum from newborn calf serum on the basis of biochemical composition.